Sub Focus-1: Computational Ultrasound and Medical Technology
Through novel device design, real-time image analysis and machine intelligence, understanding of diagnostic techniques, and system design we work to improve the usability, diagnostic capability, and workflow productivity of freehand ultrasound imaging. Freehand ultrasound instruments are a low cost, versatile, safe (i.e. non-ionizing radiation), imaging technique – suitable for diverse medical practices.
Non-contact and Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging
Non-contact and quantitative ultrasound images of bone and soft tissue are produced from original algorithms applied to observational data sets collected using a water immersion ultrasound tomography (UST) and laser ultrasound (LUS) imaging systems. These systems and algorithms could improve the quality, cost and safety of osteoporosis diagnosis and tracking, prosthetic fitting, bone fracture detection and tracking, intraoperative imaging and volumetric imaging in intensive care units. The images are quantitative in that the distribution of sound speeds and dimensionally accurate geometry of tissue structures are reconstructed. The experiments completed with the LUS system demonstrate its capability to generate ultrasound images without contacting or treating the skin surface. Further, soft tissue (weak reflector), as well as strong reflectors are resolved at skin safe optical exposures. The full waveform inversion (FWI) algorithms developed for the UST system yield quantitative (sound speed and geometry) bone and soft tissue ultrasound images.
Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE)
Quantitative musculoskeletal tissue assessment and improved prosthetic interface design
For persons living with lower extremity amputation, the prosthetic socket – the cup-like interface connecting the residuum to prosthesis – is considered the most critical component. It must be custom-made and tailored to each individual user, and if not fit properly can significantly hinder the quality of life. As an alternative to conventional fabrication practices that involve subjective input from a clinician, computational modeling-based socket design practices have emerged. Despite early success, its clinical implementation and potential for broad accessibility are limited since it relies on expensive imaging technologies and robotic indentation devices. Medical ultrasound imaging, a cost-effective modality that can be used at the bedside, is a promising and clinically-viable solution.
In order for an ultrasound to become a viable scanning method for this application, technological development was necessary that allows for three-dimensional acquisition of (1) limb geometry and (2) mechanical tissue properties. Toward this goal, we first present the design of a novel multi-modal imaging system for rapidly acquiring volumetric ultrasound imagery of human limbs. Second, we present results of two studies that evaluate the use of ultrasound indentation and shear wave elastography (SWE) to characterize tissue biomechanics: the former to investigate how SWE is affected by transducer force, and the latter presenting a novel approach for constitutive parameter identification using a combination of finite element analysis (FEA), indentation, and SWE. Finally, we demonstrate that SWE may be performed using a non-contact approach, allowing for human limb data to be collected under discrete transducer-independent loading conditions.
Sub-focus-II: Smart Manufacturing
Optical digital-imaging techniques offer a fast, high-resolution, and wide-range metrology capability for measuring semi-transparent and transparent polymer-based devices during manufacture. We create novel instrumentation for in-process statistical control and metrology capable of measuring a complete macroscale part (~25 mm) down to its microscale features (~50 µm).
Fiber manufacturing process has been an integral part of the optical fiber communications. The optical fiber manufacturing processes involve high precision quality control and large volume production. However, the conventional fiber drawing manufacturing technologies are not flexible and highly specialized. This prevents innovative ideas such as flexible fiber manufacturing and small-scale prototypes. We are working to design and test a desktop fiber manufacturing kit. Proportional control can be used to adjust fiber diameters very precisely.
Precise Multimaterial Fiber Extrusion using Acoustic Radiation Force
Carbon nanofibers in polymer-based composites reduce the electrical resistivity of the composite but can be up to 100 times more expensive than the bulk polymer. This work uses acoustic focusing to organize and compact carbon nanofibers in a mineral oil mixture. The result is a decrease in the composite electrical resistivity without an increase in the global volume fraction of the fibers in the composite and associated material cost.
Sub-focus-III: Micro and Nanotechnology
Integrated Photonics for Point-of-Care Diagnostic Sensors
The pressure of increasing service demands and improving turnaround times of results in the healthcare industry require the development of more rapid, point-of-care and personalized diagnostic tools. Light is ubiquitous in biology and offers various elegant solutions for diagnostic, therapies and theranostic applications. At present, there is not a single biomedical application where optical components are not applied. If we can come up with a framework that can miniaturize these optical components on a chip, it can offer various advantages in terms of scalability, portability, cost and improved performance for real-time monitoring and bedside treatment. On these lines, we propose bio-photonic integrated circuits (Bio-PICs) for point-of-care diagnostics. These circuits rely on moving photons in photonic waveguides (similar to electrons in your electronic chips) to provide on-chip sensing solution. Specifically, we are working on developing Bio-PICs for aerosol spectroscopy, blood coagulometry, and TB breath analyzer test.
MEMS-based Flexible Ultrasonic Transducer
Wearable ultrasound sensing could lead to novel medical diagnostics by enabling continuous, real-time, and direct measurement of physiological phenomena, such as blood pressure. Currently, ultrasound is not used in wearable health sensing applications because clinical ultrasound systems are expensive, bulky, and require high operating power. Realizing wearable ultrasound, therefore, requires significant reductions in cost, size, and power consumption. Manufacturing cost was of particular concern because sensors are frequently incorporated into consumer goods, where cost is a key driver of technology adoption. Toward that goal, we are exploring the opportunity to fabricate low-cost ultrasound transducers by contact printing. Contact printing is chosen because it could be scalable for high-throughput manufacturing, and it could be performed at ambient temperature and pressure. a capacitive microscale ultrasound transducer is fabricated by contact printing a gold-parylene composite flexible membrane onto a silicon chip substrate. We have shown that flexible membrane ultrasound transducers have the potential to in the future enable ultrasound to be used for wearable health sensing.